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By Laws

AMENDED AND RESTATED

BY-LAWS

OF

CAESARS ACQUISITION COMPANY

 

The board of directors of Caesars Acquisition Company (the “Board of Directors”) adopted Caesars Acquisition Company’s (the “Corporation”) initial by-laws (the “Initial By-Laws”) by Unanimous Written Consent of Directors in Lieu of Meeting on July 8, 2013. Pursuant to Article Six of the Corporation’s Certificate of Corporation, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on February 25, 2013, and Article X of the Initial By-Laws, the Board of Directors by taking all necessary actions repealed the Initial By-Laws and duly adopted these Amended and Restated By-Laws of the Corporation (the “By-Laws”) amending and restating the Initial By-Laws in its entirety.

ARTICLE I - OFFICES

Section 1.1. Registered Office. The registered office of the Corporation shall be at 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE 19808.

Section 1.2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine.

Section 1.3. Books and Records. The books and records of the Corporation may be kept outside the State of Delaware at such place or places as may from time to time be designated by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE II - MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 2.1. Meetings of Stockholders. Meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time and place, if any, either within or outside the State of Delaware as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof. Meetings may be held without notice if all stockholders entitled to vote are present, or if notice is waived by those not present in accordance with Section 6.2 of these By-Laws. Any previously scheduled meeting of the stockholders may be postponed, and (unless the first amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and restated from time to time (the "Certificate of Incorporation") otherwise provides) any special meeting of the stockholders may be cancelled, by resolution of the Board of Directors upon public announcement given prior to the date previously scheduled for such meeting of stockholders.

Section 2.2. Annual Meetings.

(i) If required by applicable law, an annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on such date and at such time and place, if any, either within or outside the State of Delaware, as may be fixed by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, for the purpose of electing directors and for the transaction of only such other business as is properly brought before the meeting in accordance with these By-Laws. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any annual meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors.

(ii) Notice of an annual meeting stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders may be deemed to be present at such meeting, and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting) shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting, unless otherwise provided by law or these By-Laws. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Such further notice shall be given as may be required by law.

(iii) To be properly brought before the annual meeting, business (other than the election of directors) must be either (i) specified in the notice of annual meeting (or any supplement or amendment thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any committee thereof), (ii) otherwise brought before the annual meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any committee thereof), or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the annual meeting by a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.2 is delivered to the Secretary who is entitled to vote at the meeting and complies with the notice requirements set forth in this Section 2.2. In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (which anniversary date, in the case of the first annual meeting following the closing of the Corporation’s initial public offering, shall be deemed to be April 15, 2014) (provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than seventy (70) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation). In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth (a) as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting (1) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the By-Laws, the language of the proposed amendment) and (2) any material interest of the stockholder (and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made) in such business and (b) as to the stockholder of record giving the notice or the beneficial owner, if any, on behalf of which the notice is given (1) the name and record address of the stockholder as they appear on the Corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (2) the class and series, if any, and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned by the stockholder and beneficial owner, (3) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business, and (4) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if any, intends or is part of a group which intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal and/or (y) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal.

(iv) The foregoing notice requirements of this Section 2.2 shall be deemed satisfied by a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his intention to present a proposal at an annual meeting in compliance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and such stockholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such annual meeting.

(v) Notwithstanding anything in these By-Laws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at the annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.2. The presiding person at an annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the annual meeting that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Section 2.2 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s proposal in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by this Section 2.2), and if such officer should so determine, such officer shall so declare to the annual meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.2, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present such proposed business, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. For purposes of this Section 2.2 (and for purposes of Section 3.3 below), to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the annual meeting of stockholders. 

(vi) For purposes of this Section 2.2 (and Section 3.3 below), "public announcement" shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

(vii) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.2, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.2. Nothing in this Section 2.2 shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act.

Section 2.3. Special Meetings. Unless otherwise prescribed by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, special meetings of stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, may only be called by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, and no other party shall be entitled to call special meetings. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any special meeting of stockholders previously called or scheduled by a majority of the entire Board of Directors. Notice of a special meeting stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders may be deemed to be present at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), and the purpose or purposes of the meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting, unless otherwise provided by law or these By-Laws. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting.

Section 2.4. Quorum; Adjournments. Except as otherwise provided by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, the presence, in person or by proxy, of the holders of record of shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitling the holders thereof to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the holders of shares of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the presiding person of the meeting or the holders of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented by proxy. Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may adjourn from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, if any, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at the meeting.

Section 2.5. Voting. At all meetings of stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of shares of capital stock entitled to vote. All other questions brought before any meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present shall, unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation or any other rules and regulations applicable to the Corporation or its securities, be decided by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast by stockholders present in person or by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote thereat. Each stockholder represented at a meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder, unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation. Such votes may be cast in person or by proxy but no proxy shall be voted after three years from its date, unless such proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by delivering to the Secretary of the Corporation a revocation of the proxy or a new proxy bearing a later date. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at a meeting of stockholders, in his discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

Section 2.6. List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The officer of the Corporation who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day of the meeting), arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of meeting or (ii) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation. The list of stockholders must also be open to examination at the meeting as required by applicable law. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder of the Corporation who is present.

Section 2.7. Stock Ledger. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger of the Corporation shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list required by Section 2.6 or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

Section 2.8. Inspectors of Election. The Corporation may, and shall if required by law, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election, who may be employees of the Corporation, to act at the meeting or any adjournment thereof and to make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. In the event that no inspector so appointed or designated is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take and sign an oath to execute faithfully the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his ability. The inspector or inspectors so appointed or designated shall (i) ascertain the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation outstanding and the voting power of each such share, (ii) determine the shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (iii) count all votes and ballots, (iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors, and (v) certify their determination of the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and such inspectors’ count of all votes and ballots. Such certification and report shall specify such other information as may be required by law. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, the inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law. No person who is a candidate for an office at an election may serve as an inspector at such election.

Section 2.9. Conduct of Meetings. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting by the person presiding over the meeting. The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or to adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the presiding person of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the presiding person of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter or business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

Section 2.10. Action Without Meeting. Except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, for so long as the Corporation is a "controlled company" under the NASDAQ Marketplace rules, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing. From and after such time the Corporation is no longer a "controlled company" under the NASDAQ Marketplace rules, the stockholders may not in any circumstance take action by written consent in lieu of a meeting.

Section 2.11. Proxies. At all meetings of stockholders, a stockholder may vote by proxy executed in writing (or in such manner prescribed by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware) by the stockholder, or by his duly authorized attorney in fact.

ARTICLE - III DIRECTORS

Section 3.1. General Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of the Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authorities by these By-Laws expressly conferred upon them, the Board of Directors may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

Section 3.2. Number, Tenure and Qualifications. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the number of directors shall be fixed from time to time pursuant to a resolution adopted by two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the entire Board of Directors. Any vacancy in the Board of Directors that results from an increase in the number of directors, from the death, resignation or removal of any director or for any other cause shall be filled solely by the approval of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director and shall not be filled by the stockholders. Any director of any class elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors of such class shall hold office for a term that shall coincide with the remaining term of that class. Any director elected or appointed to fill a vacancy not resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall have the same remaining term as that of his or her predecessor. The term of each director shall continue until the annual meeting for the year in which his or her term expires and until his or her successor shall be duly elected and shall qualify, subject to such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

Section 3.3. Classification and Nomination of Directors.

(i) Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, upon the effectiveness of the Corporation’s registration statement on Form S-1 with respect to its initial public offering of Common Stock (as defined in the Certificate of Incorporation), the directors shall be classified, with respect to the time for which they shall hold their respective offices, by dividing them into three (3) classes, to be known as "Class I," "Class II" and "Class III", with each class to be apportioned as nearly equal in number as possible. In case of any increase or decrease, from time to time, in the number of directors, the number of directors in each class shall be apportioned as nearly equal as possible. No decrease in the number of directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director. Directors of Class I shall hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders after such effectiveness and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, directors of Class II shall hold office until the second annual meeting of the stockholders after such effectiveness and until their successors are duly elected and qualified and directors of Class III shall hold office until the third annual meeting of stockholders after such effectiveness and until their successors are duly elected and qualified. At each annual meeting of stockholders following such effectiveness, successors to the directors of the class whose term of office expires at such annual meeting shall be elected to hold office until the third succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, so that the term of office of only one class of directors shall expire at each annual meeting.

(ii) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the Corporation at the annual meeting may be made at such meeting only by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, by any committee or persons appointed by the Board of Directors or by any stockholder of the Corporation of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 3.3 is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation who is entitled to vote for the election of directors at the meeting who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 3.3. Such nominations by any stockholder shall be made pursuant to timely notice in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (which anniversary date, in the case of the first annual meeting following the closing of the Corporation’s initial public offering, shall be deemed to be April 15, 2014) (provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than seventy (70) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation).

(iii) Such stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth (i) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director, (a) the name, age, business address and residence address of the person, (b) the principal occupation or employment of the person, (c) the class and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned by the person, (d) such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected and (e) any other information relating to the person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations for proxies for election of directors pursuant to the Rules and Regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 14 of the Exchange Act; (ii) as to the record stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made (a) the name and address of the stockholder as it appears on the Corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (b) the class and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially and of record by the stockholder, (c) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such nomination, and (d) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if any, intends or is part of a group which intends (1) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to elect the nominee and/or (2) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such nomination.

(iv) The foregoing notice requirements of this Section 3.3 shall be deemed satisfied by a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his intention to present a nomination at an annual meeting in compliance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act and such stockholder’s nomination has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such annual meeting. The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation. No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth herein. The presiding person of an annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedure (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee or proposal in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by this Section 3.3), and if he should so determine, he shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded. The directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of the stockholders, except as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and each director elected shall hold office until his successor is duly elected and qualified. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 3.3, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination, such nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

(v) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this Section 3.3 to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the Corporation naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least one hundred (100) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 3.3 shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

(vi) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 3.3, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 3.3. Nothing in this Section 3.3 shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act.

Section 3.4. Removal. Upon the effectiveness of the Corporation’s registration statement on Form S-1 with respect to its initial public offering of Common Stock, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the total voting power of the outstanding shares of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

Section 3.5. Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or a majority of the entire Board of Directors. Notice thereof stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the meeting, by telephone or by other means of electronic transmission on not less than twelve (12) hours’ notice. A meeting may be held at any time without notice if all the directors are present or if those not present waive notice of the meeting in accordance with Section 4.2 of these By-Laws.

Section 3.6. Quorum. Except as may be otherwise specifically provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, at all meetings of the Board of Directors, a majority of the entire Board of Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and, except in cases in which the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws or applicable law otherwise provides, the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 3.7. Actions by Unanimous Consent of Directors. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings (or electronic transmissions) are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee in accordance with applicable law.

Section 3.8. Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, members of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 3.8 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting. 

Section 3.9. Organization. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, or in his absence, by the Chief Executive Officer (the "CEO") (if the CEO is a director), or in their absence by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 3.10. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution of the Board of Directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member. Any committee, to the extent allowed by law and provided in the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required. A majority of any committee may determine its action and fix the time and place of its meetings. Notice of such meetings shall be given to each member of the committee in the manner provided for in Section 3.5 of these By-Laws. The Board of Directors shall have power at any time to fill vacancies in, to change the membership of, or to dissolve any such committee. Nothing herein shall be deemed to prevent the Board of Directors from appointing one or more committees consisting in whole or in part of persons who are not directors of the Corporation; provided, however, that no such committee shall have or may exercise any authority of the Board of Directors.

Section 3.11. Records. The Board of Directors shall cause to be kept a record containing the minutes of the proceedings of the meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders, appropriate stock books and registers and such books of records and accounts as may be necessary for the proper conduct of the business of the Corporation.

Section 3.12. Compensation. The directors, or any members of special or standing committees, may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors (or committees thereof) and such additional compensation as determined by the Board of Directors. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.

Section 3.13. Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association, or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because his or their votes are counted for such purpose if (i) the material facts as to his or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to his or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

ARTICLE IV - OFFICERS

Section 4.1. General. The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a CEO, a Secretary and a Treasurer. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, may also choose a Chairman of the Board of Directors (who must be a director), one or more Presidents, one or more Senior Vice Presidents, one or more Executive Vice Presidents, one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers and other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

Section 4.2. Election. The Board of Directors at its first meeting held after each annual meeting of stockholders shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and all officers of the Corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualified, or until their earlier resignation or removal. Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors. The salaries of all officers who are directors of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.3. Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation. Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the CEO, any President, any Senior Vice President or any Vice President and any such officer may, in the name and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons. 

Section 4.4. Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors. Except where by law the signature of the CEO is required, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall possess the same power as the CEO to sign all contracts, certificates and other instruments of the Corporation which may be authorized by the Board of Directors. During the absence or disability of the CEO, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall exercise all the powers and discharge all the duties of the CEO. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as from time to time may be assigned to him by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.5. Chief Executive Officer. The CEO shall be selected by the Board of Directors and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision of the business of the Corporation. The CEO shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. The CEO shall individually have the authority to execute all bonds, mortgages, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation, including those requiring a seal under the seal of the Corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except that the other officers of the Corporation may sign and execute documents when so authorized by these By-Laws, the Board of Directors or a Committee thereof, or the CEO. In the absence or disability of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the CEO shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors (if the CEO is a director of the Corporation). The CEO shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as from time to time may be assigned to him by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.6. Presidents. Each President shall be selected by the Board of Directors and shall, subject to the control of the CEO, have general supervision of the business or a business division of the Corporation as directed by the Board of Directors or the CEO. At the request of the CEO or in his absence or in the event of his inability or refusal to act (and if there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors), the President or the Presidents if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties of the CEO, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the CEO. Each President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors, no CEO and no President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of the President or Presidents or in the event of the inability or refusal of the President or Presidents to act, shall perform the duties of the CEO, and when so acting, shall have all the powers or and be subject to all the restrictions upon the CEO.

Section 4.7. Vice Presidents. At the request of the CEO (or, in his absence or in the event of his inability or refusal to act (and if there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors), any President (as designated by the Board of Directors)), the Senior Vice President or the Senior Vice Presidents if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors), the Executive Vice President or the Executive Vice Presidents if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors), the Vice President or the Vice Presidents if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties of any President or Presidents, as designated by the CEO, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon such President or Presidents, as  applicable. Each Senior Vice President, Executive Vice President and Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors, no CEO, no President, no Senior Vice President, no Executive Vice President and no Vice President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of such President or Presidents, as applicable, or in the event of the inability or refusal of such President or Presidents, as applicable, to act, shall perform the duties of such President or Presidents, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon such President or Presidents, as applicable.

Section 4.8. Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of stockholders and record all the proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the Secretary shall also perform like duties for the standing committees when required. The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or Chairman, under whose supervision he shall be. If the Secretary shall be unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and if there be no Assistant Secretary, then either the Board of Directors or the Chairman may choose another officer to cause such notice to be given. The Secretary shall have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature. The Secretary shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as the case may be.

Section 4.9. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the CEO and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 4.10. Assistant Secretaries. Except as may be otherwise provided in these By-Laws, Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the CEO, any President, any Senior Vice President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of his disability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Secretary.

Section 4.11. Assistant Treasurers. Assistant Treasurers, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the CEO, any President, any Senior Vice President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of his disability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Treasurer. If required by the Board of Directors, an Assistant Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 4.12. Controller. The Controller shall establish and maintain the accounting records of the Corporation in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis, maintain proper internal control of the assets of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the CEO, any President, any Executive Vice President, any Senior Vice President or any Vice President of the Corporation may prescribe.

Section 4.13. Other Officers. Such other officers as the Board of Directors may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.

ARTICLE V - STOCK

Section 5.1. Form of Certificates. The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors of the Corporation may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the Board of Directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the CEO, President, Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President or Vice President, and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form.

Section 5.2. Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile, including, but not limited to, signatures of officers of the Corporation and countersignatures of a transfer agent or registrar. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 5.3. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or uncertificated shares to be issued in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or uncertificated shares, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

Section 5.4. Transfers. Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these By-Laws. Shares of stock of the Corporation shall only be transferred on the books of the Corporation by the holder of record thereof or by such holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing, upon surrender to the Corporation of the certificate or certificates representing such shares endorsed by the appropriate person or persons (or by delivery of duly executed instructions with respect to uncertificated shares), with such evidence of the authenticity of such endorsement or execution, transfer, authorization, and other matters as the Corporation may reasonably require, and accompanied by all necessary stock transfer stamps. Uncertificated shares shall be transferred in accordance with applicable law. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing the names of the persons from and to whom it was transferred.

Section 5.5. Record Date. (i) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting. 

(ii) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. Any stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take corporate action by written consent shall, by written notice to the Secretary, request the Board of Directors to fix a record date, which written notice shall include all information (including with respect to any beneficial owner on whose behalf such notice is delivered) that would be required pursuant to Section 2.2 and Section 3.3 of these By-laws, as applicable, if the stockholder had been making a nomination or proposing business to be considered at a meeting of the stockholders. The Board of Directors shall promptly, but in all events within ten (10) days after the date on which such request is received, adopt a resolution fixing the record date. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors within ten (10) days after the date on which such a request is received, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken, sent to the attention of the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, is received by the Secretary. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and the prior action of the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be the close of business on the date on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

Section 5.6. Beneficial Owners. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote (to the extent such shares are entitled to vote) as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by law.

ARTICLE VI - NOTICES

Section 6.1. Notices. (i) Whenever written notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director or member of a committee or stockholder, such notice may be given by mail, addressed to such director or member of a committee or stockholder, at his address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Written notice may also be given personally or by other means of electronic transmission.

(ii) Any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation pursuant to these By-Laws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation and shall also be deemed revoked if (a) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two (2) consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (b) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, the transfer agent or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Notice given by a form of electronic transmission in accordance with these By-Laws shall be deemed given: (1) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (3) if by a posting on an electronic network, together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of such posting and the giving of such separate notice; and (4) if by another form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. For purposes of these By-Laws, "electronic transmission" means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

(iii) Any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation may be given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at such address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholders by written notice to the Corporation. Any stockholder who fails to object in writing to the Corporation, within sixty (60) days of having been given written notice by the Corporation of its intention to send the single notice as set forth in this Section 6.1(iii) shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice.

Section 6.2. Waivers of Notice. Whenever any notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed, by the person or persons entitled to said notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in such a waiver.

ARTICLE VII - ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES

Section 7.1. Prepayment of Expenses. In addition to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Corporation shall, to the fullest extent not prohibited by applicable law pay the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by any person who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a "proceeding"), by reason of the fact that he, or a person for whom he is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans (a "Covered Person"), in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that, to the extent required by law, such payment of expenses in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the Covered Person to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the Covered Person is not entitled to indemnification under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation, any agreement or otherwise.

Section 7.2. Nonexclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any Covered Person by this Article VII shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such Covered Person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

Section 7.3. Other Sources. The Corporation’s obligation, if any, to advance expenses to any Covered Person who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity shall be reduced by any amount such Covered Person may collect as advancement of expenses from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or non-profit enterprise.

Section 7.4. Amendment or Repeal. The rights afforded to Covered Persons under this Article VII shall be contract rights, shall vest when such person becomes a Covered Person and shall continue as vested contract rights. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article VII shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any Covered Person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.

Section 7.5. Other Indemnification and Prepayment of Expenses. This Article VII shall not limit the right of the Corporation, to the extent and in the manner permitted by law, to indemnify and to advance expenses to persons other than Covered Persons when and as authorized by appropriate corporate action.

Section 7.6. Applicable Law. Any action or proceeding arising out of or in connection with the rights conferred by either the Certificate of Incorporation or this Article VII shall be brought only in the Chancery Court of the State of Delaware, and not in any other state or federal court in the United States of America or any court in any other country.

ARTICLE VIII - GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 8.1. Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, and may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, provided that no dividend shall be declared and paid except to the extent the Corporation shall have lawfully available funds therefor. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in its absolute discretion, deems proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for any proper purpose, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

Section 8.2. Disbursements. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

Section 8.3. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall end on December 31 and the following fiscal year shall commence on January 1, unless the fiscal year is otherwise fixed by affirmative resolution of the entire Board of Directors.

Section 8.4. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation and the words "Corporate Seal, Delaware". The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

Section 8.5. Amendments. In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by the laws of the State of Delaware, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to make, adopt, alter, amend, change or repeal these By-Laws by resolution adopted by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the members of the entire Board of Directors. In addition to any requirements of law and any other provision of these By-Laws or the Certificate of Incorporation, and notwithstanding any other provision of these By-Laws, the Certificate of Incorporation or any provision of law which might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, stockholders may not make, adopt, alter, amend, change or repeal these By-Laws except upon the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the holders of shares of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting, voting together as a single class.




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